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The radio-electric transducers, better known as radio antennas, in the light of the new discoveries.

by Francesco Errante

In physics, by the word "transducers ", we define all of those devices capable of transforming a form of energy into another one and vice-versa. Generally, during the transformation performed by the transducers, an ordained form of energy gets transformed into a disordered one and vice-versa. As an example: loudspeakers and microphones are electro-mechanical transducers. They, infact, transform electric energy into mechanical vibrations and vice-versa. Radio antennas are, instead, "radio-electric transducers", they transform radio-frequency electric energy into hertzian radiation (radio-waves) and vice-versa.
Unlike what happens with other types of transducers, understanding how radio-electric transducers work cannot be done by intuition. That's because they have no machanical parts in motion and their "vibrations" cannot be directly perceived by the human body. To tell the truth, under certain conditions (frequency, power and distance from the source), the human body can feel some of the effects of the hertzian radiation, as a distributed heat or a localized burn, but this was not enough to discover the real mechanism at the origins of the radio waves' phenomenon.
For more than a century and indeed, ever since Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of the radio-electric phenomena, their "scientific" description has been limited to a mere theoretical representation by mathematics. In the year 2003, the Author has, letterally and definitely, shed some light on the real mechanism at the origins of the hertzian radiation, by means of his own particular detection system based on the radioluminescence, another physical phenomenon of energy transformation.
Untill recent, the radio-electric transdusers have been divided in two main types: the balanced and the un-balanced ones.
In the ligth of what the Author has demonstrated, the said division should now be revised. Accordingly, the radio-electric transdusers should be distinguished in two categories: the "elementary " ones and the "NON-elementary " ones.
(by definition an elementary radio-electric transducer is a transducer where the condition of resonance and radiation cannot take place without the presence of all its parts)
The elementary radio-electric transducers are monopolos (un-balanced antennas), while the NON-elementary ones are dipoles (balanced antennas). Both types of transducers can be open ended or closed circuits as loops. It has to be clarified that loops are, also, often improperly referred to as "folded". This is incorrect as, in radio-engineering, it is possible to have folded antennas that are electrically open.
Dipoles can be open dipoles or of a closed circuit type, incorrectly called "folded dipoles". However, the latter is the father of all the loops. The folded dipole, as demonstrated, can be traced back to two closed-circuit monopoles fed in a counter-phase arrangement and physically coinciding with each other. This is, also, true for loops having any geometry (e.g. circular, delta-loop, polygonal etc.).
Any NON-elementary radio-electric transducer (balanced transducers) can always been traced back to a system of elementary transducers (unbalanced transdusers) being arranged in a counterphase configuration.
The incorrect spacing-up between elementary radio sources belonging to the same system will give origin to self-antagonist systems to the detriment of the antenna's gain.


Theoretical fundamentals of radioengineering, radiophysics, practical applications, antenna engineering, advanced antenna design, HF antennas, scientific publications, technical publications, physics, science, radio waves, hertzian waves, hertzian radiation, radiation pattern, antenna coupling, antenna feed, antenna swr, antenna technology, transmitting, receiving, aerials, balun, transformers, RF, radio frequency, virtual ground, electromagnetics phenomenon, phenomena, studies, radioelectric experiments gateway, scientific research, applied research, radio propagation, ionospheric propagation, trans-ionospheric propagation,HF,shortwave radio communications



All the concepts, methods, designs and devices presented on this web site
are the original novelty works of FRANCESCO ERRANTE.
Patents & Copyright © 1985- of FRANCESCO ERRANTE.

Material is governed by the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act.
No reproduction, in whole or in part, without written permission.
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